The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that Volume 128 of the IARC Monographs, Acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline, is now available online.
Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are chemicals with a high production volume. Exposure to these chemicals may occur variously in industrial settings including chemical synthesis, in recirculating water systems (in which acrolein is used as a herbicide), and in food production and agriculture (crotonaldehyde). Tobacco smoke is a major source of exposure to crotonaldehyde and acrolein in the general population. Both chemicals are also found in combustion emissions from fuel and wood, and in ambient air pollution and electronic cigarette vapour. Firefighters are exposed occupationally.
Arecoline is the primary active ingredient of the areca nut, which is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). Areca nut is chewed for its mild psychoactive effects, mainly in south-east Asia, and areca-nut preparations are used in traditional Chinese and Ayurveda medicines.
The IARC Monographs Working Group concluded that acrolein is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), and crotonaldehyde and arecoline are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).